Drug Discov Ther. 2018;12(2):68-76. (DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2017.01063)

Effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and GGCX gene variants and patient characteristics on acenocoumarol maintenance dose: Proposal for a dosing algorithm for Moroccan patients.

Elkhazraji A, Bouaiti EA, Boulahyaoui H, Nahmtchougli CP, Zahid H, Bensaid M, Ibrahimi A, Messaoudi N


We investigated the impact of non-genetics factors, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2, and GGCX on acenocoumarol dosage in Moroccan adult's patients, in order to develop an algorithm to predict acenocoumarol dose for Moroccan patients. Our study consisted of 217 Moroccan patients taking a maintenance dose of acenocoumarol for various indications. The patients were genotyped for VKORC1 ‒C1639 G>A, VKORC1 1173 C>T, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 1347 G>A and GGCX 12970 C>G SNPs. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software. The age and SNPs in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 were significantly associated with the weekly acenocoumarol dose requirement (p = 0.023, p = 0.0001 and p = 0.001 respectively). There was no association found between the weekly acenocoumarol dose and the CYP4F2 or GGCX variants (p-value > 0.05). Non-parametric analysis confirmed the accumulate effect of variant alleles at VKORC1 ‒C1639 G>A, VKORC1 1173 C>T and CYP2C9 SNPs on the acenocoumarol dose requirement. With 90.24% less dose required for one patient carrying homozygote variant at VKORC1 ‒C1173 (TT) and CYP2C9 *x/*x haplotype. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that mutation in VKORC1 ‒C1639, VKORC1 1173 SNPs, or in CYP2C9 haplotype reduces the mean acenocoumarol weekly dose to 25.4%, 23.4% and 6.2%, respectively. The R2 for multiple regression analysis final model was found to be 35.9%. In this work we were able to establish the factors influencing interindividual sensitivity to the anticoagulant therapy that can help physicians to predict optimal dose requirement for long term therapy.

KEYWORDS: Acenocoumarol, genetics and non genetics factors, algorithm dose, Morocco

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