Drug Discov Ther. 2021;15(6):331-336. (DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2021.01108)
CASC5 is a potential cancer-testis gene in human urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma
Singh PK, Bhatt ML, Singh P, Rath SK, Dalela D, Goel MM
Urinary Bladder cancer (UBC) is a diversified disease with an array of clinicopathological attributes. Several studies have shown that cancer susceptibility candidate 5 (CASC5) plays important roles in various types of malignancies; however its expression and clinical significance in human UBC remain largely unknown. This research study was intended to explore mRNA/protein expression pattern of CASC5 as a member of the cancer-testis (CT) gene family and assess its clinical utility in diagnostic management of patients with UBC. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRTPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was employed to appraise the detailed expression profile of CASC5 in patients with UBC. The mRNA over expression of CASC5 was detected in testis tissue and relatively high frequency 59.2% (45 of 76) of CASC5 mRNA was detected in UBC tissues. CASC5 mRNA relative mean fold expression was also significantly (p < 0.01) higher in the muscleinvasive tumor tissues compared to non-muscle-invasive tumor tissues (12.26 ± 9.53 vs. 4.64 ± 2.50, p = 0.005). Heterogeneous staining pattern of CASC5 protein was exclusively detected using IHC. The frequency of CASC5 protein over expression was detected in 67.7% (44 of 65) UBC patients and negative in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Further, CASC5 protein expression was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with cigarette smoking habit in UBC patients. Our study findings testified that CASC5 over expression among patients with UBC as compared to controls and concludes that CASC5 is a potential CT gene in UBC.