Drug Discov Ther. 2023;17(3):170-176. (DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2023.01008)

Harmless and ecologically acceptable fabrication of long-acting injectable microspheres

Matsumoto A, Murakami M


The use of harmful solvents during the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations is restricted to preserve environment and ensure safety of industrial operations. However, harmful solvents must be used to produce certain formulations. For instance, methylene chloride has been used in the fabrication of polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres. This review highlights the latest advances in the strategy of PLA or PLGA microsphere production from non-halogenated solvents and describes advantages and limitations of these methods. The study also discusses the development of dry fabrication techniques for microsphere fabrication and the positioning of conventional and dry fabrication in the containment concept for workers' safety.

KEYWORDS: polylactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, substitute solvents, containment, solventless fabrication

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