Drug Discov Ther. 2023;17(6):434-439. (DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2023.01083)
Evaluation of D-amino acid oxidase activity in rat kidney using a D-kynurenine derivative, 6-methylthio-D-kynurenine: An in vivo microdialysis study
Fukushima T, Kansaku A, Umino M, Sakamoto T, Onozato M
D-Amino acid oxidase (DAO), a D-amino acid metabolizing enzyme, is reportedly associated with the psychiatric disease schizophrenia, suggesting a role for DAO inhibitors in its treatment. We have previously reported that DAO catalyzes the conversion of nonfluorescent 6-methylthio-D-kynurenine (MeS-D-KYN) to fluorescent 5-methylthiokynurenic acid (MeS-KYNA) in vitro. The present study aimed to determine the potential of MeS-D-KYN in evaluating DAO activity in vivo using renal microdialysis technique in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to linear microdialysis probe implantation in the left kidney. Continuous perfusion of MeS-D-KYN was maintained, and DAO activity in the kidney cortex was evaluated by measuring the MeS-KYNA content in the microdialysate. The microdialysate was collected every 30 min and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, monitored at 450 nm with an excitation wavelength of 364 nm. A significant production of MeS-KYNA was observed during, but not before, infusion of MeS-D-KYN, indicating that this compound is not endogenous. MeS-KYNA production was suppressed by the co-infusion of DAO inhibitor, 5-chlorobenzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol (CBIO), suggesting that MeS-D-KYN was converted to MeS-KYNA by renal DAO. Moreover, oral administration of CBIO effectively suppressed DAO activity in a dose-dependent manner. DAO converted MeS-D-KYN to MeS-KYNA in vivo, suggesting the potential of this compound in evaluating DAO activity. The use of the renal microdialysis technique developed in this study facilitates the monitoring of DAO activity in live experimental animals.