Drug Discov Ther. 2010;4(2):135-143.
Phagocytosis plays a dual role in activating dendritic cells; digestive production of active Toll-like receptor ligands and cooperation with Toll-like receptor signaling.
Miyauchi M, Murata M, Shibuya K, Koga-Yamakawa E, Yanagawa Y, Azuma I, Kashiwazaki Y
Phagocytosis is an initial step in innate immunity, which is also stimulated by signals via Toll-like receptors (TLRs); however, the cooperation of phagocytosis with signals through TLRs to establish acquired immunity is unknown. We found that phagocytosis is an essential process to induce an immune reaction against an insoluble TLR ligand. Cell-wall skeleton prepared from Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG-CWS), an insoluble TLR2 ligand, activated and matured murine splenic dendritic cell (DC) line BC-1 as well as a soluble TLR2 ligand, Pam3CSK4. Surprisingly, BC-1 maturation with BCG-CWS was completely suppressed by inhibiting phagocytosis, while that with Pam3CSK4 was not affected. Moreover, BCGCWS induced intense delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions against mitomycin C-inactivated Lewis lung carcinoma cells but Pam3CSK4 did not. These results suggested that the phagocytosis process enables the insoluble TLR2 ligand to activate DCs via TLR2 comparable to a soluble TLR2 ligand in vitro, and stimulating TLR2 alone is not sufficient to establish T cell-mediated immunity in vivo. It is therefore conceivable that the process of phagocytosis induces additional effects on TLR2-stimulated DCs to activate cellmediated immunity in vivo.